Oxygen deprivation, also known as birth asphyxia, occurs in about four of every 1,000 nine-month term births. Premature babies are a higher risk of being injured by oxygen deprivation. Shortly after delivery, infants begin to breathe on their own. If they are deprived of oxygen, there is only a small window of time that physicians have in order to treat the problem. Even a few minutes of oxygen deprivation can lead to lifelong brain damage and disorders such as cerebral palsy , autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, impaired vision.
End organ damage usually refers to damage occurring in major organs fed by the circulatory system ( heart , kidneys , brain , eyes ) which can sustain damage due to uncontrolled hypertension , hypotension , or hypovolemia .