Bacterial communities in the buried sediments represent up to onethird of the earth’s biomass, and was responsible for decomposition of organic matter and mineralization of nutrients in freshwater lake sediments. Sediments were the reservoir of nutrients for the water body and the sediment bacteria drive the nutrient interchange between sediment and water which affects the trophic level of the water body [ 1 ]. The environmental factors determined the bacterial community structure, which in turn affects community function, and ultimately ecosystem function [ 2 ]. Within freshwater environments, investigation of the bacterial community in the sediment could provide important clues to understanding the key influence factor of bacterial community. Thus, it was imperative to understand the bacterial community structure in the sediment.